However, the existing data are still limited, and any conclusions must be seen as tentative Gay is a social identity and is generally the preferred social term, whereas homosexual is used in formal contexts, though the terms are not entirely interchangeable. The body of research on same-sex families is consistent with standards in the relevant fields and produces reliable conclusions. Thus, even with a condom, anal sex can be risky. Prior to publication in these journals, these studies were required to go through a rigorous peer-review process, and as a result, they constitute the type of research that members of the respective professions consider reliable. Data are increasingly available from prospective studies.
Mothers were interviewed and given clinical questionnaires during pregnancy and when their children were 2, 5, 10, and 17 years of age. Data on children of parents who identify as bisexual are still not available, and information about children of non-White lesbian or gay parents is hard to find but see Wainright et al. The ACA also provided funding for community-based preventive health programs and measures to combat HIV-related health disparities. The disease has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China. Herek stated in American Psychologist: Thus, although more research is needed, available data place the burden of empirical proof on those who argue that having a gay father is harmful. Sexually transmitted disease A study reported that two large population surveys found "the majority of gay men had similar numbers of unprotected sexual partners annually as straight men and women. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Since LGBT people began to organize for their social and legal rights[ examples needed ], access to equal health care[ clarification needed ] has remained an important but often not primary issue. Many lesbian and gay parents are not open about their sexual orientation due to real fears of discrimination, homophobia, and threats of losing custody of their children. Most of the studies appeared in these or similar rigorously peer-reviewed and highly selective journals, whose standards represent expert consensus on generally accepted social scientific standards for research on child and adolescent development. More recent research has reported data from probability and community-based convenience samples, has used more rigorous assessment techniques, and has been published in highly respected and widely cited developmental psychology journals, including Child Development and Developmental Psychology. Empirical studies comparing children raised by sexual minority parents with those raised by otherwise comparable heterosexual parents have not found reliable disparities in mental health or social adjustment. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. Rosenfeld, associate professor of sociology at Stanford University , wrote in a study published in Demography that "[A] critique of the literature—that the sample sizes of the studies are too small to allow for statistically powerful tests—continues to be relevant. The body of research on same-sex families is consistent with standards in the relevant fields and produces reliable conclusions. Herek noted in that "empirical research can't reconcile disputes about core values, but it is very good at addressing questions of fact. Another potential factor of importance is the possibility of social desirability bias when research subjects respond in ways that present themselves and their families in the most desirable light possible. MSM refers to sexual activities between men, regardless of how they identify, whereas gay can include those activities but is more broadly seen as a cultural identity. Brown , in which Judge Vaughn Walker found that the available studies on stepchildren, which opponents of same-sex marriage cited to support their position that it is best for a child to be raised by its biological mother and father, do not isolate "the genetic relationship between a parent and a child as a variable to be tested" and only compare "children raised by married, biological parents with children raised by single parents, unmarried mothers, step families and cohabiting parents," and thus "compare various family structures and do not emphasize biology. Herek's paper in American Psychologist stated: In a review of 21 studies, Judith Stacey and Timothy Biblarz found that researchers frequently downplay findings indicating difference regarding children's gender, sexual preferences and behavior, suggesting that an environment of heterosexism has hampered scientific inquiry in the area. Their findings indicate that the children with lesbian or gay parents appear less traditionally gender-typed and are more likely to be open to homoerotic relationships, which may be partly due to genetic or family socialization processes or "contextual effects," even though children raised by same-sex couples are not more likely to self-identify as bisexual, lesbian, or gay and most of them identify as heterosexual. This pattern clearly has not been observed. The methodologies used in the major studies of same-sex parenting meet the standards for research in the field of developmental psychology and psychology generally. Men who are non-heterosexual or questioning may identify with all, none, a combination of these, or one of the newer terms indicating a similar sexual, romantic, and cultural identity like bi-curious. In some countries, homosexual relationships may be illegal or taboo, making MSM difficult to reach.
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